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Environmental Sustainability
 
 
 
  Water and NatureVanadium is always found combined in nature and widely distributed through a variety of minerals. In the United States, the primary source of vanadium is through recovery from spent catalyst from oil refining operations. These catalysts, along with other vanadium-bearing "waste" materials, are processed for recycling by several companies that, in turn, supply ferrovanadium alloys. The environmental benefits of recycled vanadium are worth noting. Each year six million pounds of vanadium are recycled from spent catalysts. This reduces the need to mine for vanadium minerals, which reduces the energy consumption and subsequent pollution from mining. The use of recycled vanadium also reduces the energy requirements normally associated with processing ores, eliminating or reducing the need for land filling these "wastes," and ensuring a domestic supply of vanadium for U.S. steel producers. When used as an alloy in the steelmaking process, less steel is needed to meet the same structural strength requirement as standard low C-Mn steel. This reduces the amount of energy need in manufacturing. There is also a savings in fuel consumption in operating lighter vehicles and pulling lighter weight trailers with components made from HSLA-V steel.